Cannabinoids and Nephritis


Nephritis:  Any type of kidney inflammation.

Nephritis: Types list

1. Acute nephritis
2. Chronic nephritis
3. Glomerulonephritis
4. Primary glomerulonephritis
5. Autoimmune nephritis
6. Lupus nephritis
7. Pyelonephritis
8. Interstitial nephritis

Glomerulonephritis is inflammation of the glomeruli.  (When the term "nephritis" is used without qualification, this is often the condition meant.)
Interstitial nephritis or tubulo-interstitial nephritis is inflammation of the spaces between renal tubules.
Pyelonephritis is inflammation that results from a urinary tract infection that reaches the pyelum (pelvis) of the kidney.
Lupus nephritis is an inflammation of the kidney caused by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a disease of the immune system.
Nephritis is the most common producer of glomerular injury.  It is a disturbance of the glomerular structure with inflammatory cell proliferation.  This can lead to reduced glomerular blood flow, leading to reduced urine output (oliguria) and retention of waste products (uremia).  As a result, red blood cells may leak out of damaged glomeruli, causing blood to appear in the urine (hematuria).  Low renal blood flow activates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), causing fluid retention and mild hypertension.

Nephritis refers to inflammation of one or both kidneys.  It can be caused by infection, but is most commonly caused by autoimmune disorders that affect the major organs.  For example, those with lupus are at a much higher risk for developing nephritis.  In rare cases, nephritis can be genetically inherited, though it may not present in childhood.
Nephritis is a serious medical condition that is the ninth highest cause of human death.  As the kidneys inflame, they begin to excrete needed protein from the body into the urine stream.  This condition is called proteinuria.  Loss of necessary protein due to nephritis can result in several life-threatening symptoms.  Most dangerous in cases of nephritis is the loss of protein that keeps blood from clotting.  This can result in blood clots causing sudden stroke.

Symptoms of Nephritis

Reduced urine
Cloudy urine
Blood in urine
Loin pain
Kidney inflammation
One or both kidneys affected

List of causes of Nephritis

Following is a list of causes or underlying conditions that could possibly cause Nephritis

o Kidney conditions
Autoimmune nephritis
Lupus nephritis
Certain poisons
Certain medications
Certain metabolic disorders
Herrmann syndrome - chronic kidney inflammation
Nephritis - kidney inflammation
Chemical poisoning -- Thallium Sulfate - kidney inflammation
Yellow fever - kidney inflammation
Immune Complex Diseases - kidney inflammation
Typhoid fever - kidney inflammation
Chemical poisoning -- Ether - kidney inflammation
Urethral stricture - kidney inflammation
Renal tuberculosis - kidney inflammation
Post streptococcal glomerulonephritis - kidney inflammation

39,480 people died from nephritis, nephritic syndrome and nephrosis each year in the US.  (2001)
13.9 people per 100,000 populations died from nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis each year in the US (2001)
Kidney disease was ranked the ninth leading cause of death in the US (2001)
The 'prognosis' of Nephritis usually refers to the likely outcome of Nephritis.  The prognosis of Nephritis may include the duration of Nephritis, chances of complications of Nephritis, probable outcomes, prospects for recovery, recovery period for Nephritis, survival rates, death rates, and other outcome possibilities in the overall prognosis of Nephritis.  Naturally, such forecast issues are by their nature unpredictable.

The following are some of the latest treatments for Nephritis:

Loop diuretics

Cannabinoids and Nephritis

Ajulemic acid, a synthetic cannabinoid, increases formation of the endogenous proresolving and anti-inflammatory eicosanoid, lipoxin A4
Ajulemic acid (AjA), a synthetic nonpsychoactive cannabinoid, and lipoxin A4 (LXA4), an eicosanoid formed from sequential actions of 5- and 15-lipoxygenases (LOX), facilitate resolution of inflammation.  The purpose of this study was to determine whether the ability of AjA to limit the progress of inflammation might relate to an increase in LXA4, a known anti-inflammatory and proresolving mediator

The cannabis plant has been a source of medicinal preparations since the earliest written records on pharmacobotany   a major obstacle to acceptance of the drug has been its potent psycho activity.  This problem has been studied in recent years in attempts to discover synthetic analogs that would retain medicinal properties without the psychotropic effects.  A class of cannabinoid, the carboxyl tetrahydrocannabinols  shows potential as therapy that is free from cannabimimetic central nervous system activity.  These substances, which are metabolites of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive principle of Cannabis, do not produce behavioral changes in humans at doses several times greater than THC doses given to the same volunteers   The parent compound in this series, the THC metabolite THC-11-oic acid is effective in animal models of inflammation and pain at oral doses of 20–40 mg/kg

However, more activity that is potent is needed for clinical use.
Isolation and characterization of two major urinary metabolites of 1 -tetrahydrocannabinol. [Science. 1972]
Synthetic nonpsychotropic cannabinoids with potent anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and leukocyte antiadhesion activities. [J Med Chem. 19]
The present invention relates in particular to a chewing gum composition comprising a cannabinoid  that allows for controlled release of the cannabinoid or the derivative thereof thereby providing a sustained and prolonged release of the cannabinoid or the derivative thereof, so that a mammal, preferably a human, consuming the chewing gum composition that alleviates inflammation and or pain.

According to the present invention, it is preferred that the chewing gum composition comprises 0.01 to 15% by weight of the cannabinoid or the derivative thereof, more preferably 0.01 to 1.0 percent by weight.
The chewing gum composition comprising the cannabinoid or the derivative thereof further comprises a gum base as is commonly used in chewing gum formulations that are commercially available and accepted by the consumer.
Japanese study found cannabinoids (cannabigerol) provided a temporary remission of nephritis.

The present invention relates to the use of the cannabinoid cannabigerol (CBG) in the manufacture of medicaments for use in the treatment of diseases and conditions benefiting from concurrent agonist of the CB1 and the CB2 cannabinoid receptors.  Such diseases or conditions to be treated are taken from the group: pain, neurodegenerative disease, ischemic disease, brain injury or damage, acquired brain injury, age related inflammatory or autoimmune disease, cachexia, nausea and vomiting, glaucoma, movement disorders, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, allergy, psoriasis, Crohn's disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, diabetes, cancer, osteoporosis, renal ischemia and nephritis.
More research (clinical trials) using cannabinoids to treat nephritis is necessary to provide more answers about the benefits of using cannabis in the treatment of nephritis symptoms.

Use a whole plant extract as an adjunct treatment.


Neilson EG. Tubulointerstitial diseases. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier. 2007: chap 123.

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